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The Adventure of Physics - Vol. VI: The Strand Model - A Speculation on Unification
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This book is written for anybody who is intensely curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and empty space move? The answer leads to many adventures, and this book presents one of the best of them: the search for a precise, unified and final description of all motion.

The wish to describe all motion is a large endeavour. Fortunately, this large endeavour can be structured in the simple diagram shown in Figure 1. The final and unified description of motion, the topic of this book, corresponds to the highest point in the diagram. Searching for this final and unified description is an old quest. In the following, I briefly summarize its history and then present an intriguing, though speculative solution to the riddle.

The search for the final, unified description of motion is a story of many surprises. For example, twentieth-century research has shown that there is a smallest distance in nature. Research has also shown that matter cannot be distinguished from empty space at those small distances. A last surprise dates from this century: particles and space are best described as made of strands, instead of little spheres or points. The present text explains how to reach these unexpected conclusions. In particular, quantum field theory, the standard model of particle physics, general relativity and cosmology are shown to follow from strands. The three gauge interactions, the three particle generations and the three dimensions of space turn out to be due to strands. In fact, all the open questions of twentieth-century physics about the foundations of motion, all the millennium issues, can be solved with the help of strands.

The strand model, as presented in this text, is an unexpected result from a threefold aim that I have pursued since 1990, in the five previous volumes of this series: to present the basics of motion in a way that is up to date, captivating and simple. In retrospect, the aim for maximum simplicity has been central in deducing this speculation. While the previous volumes introduced, in an entertaining way, the established parts of physics, this volume presents, in the same entertaining and playful way, a speculation about unification. Nothing in this volume is established knowledge – yet. The text is the original presentation of the topic.

The search for a final theory is one of the great adventures of life: it leads to the limits of thought. The search overthrows our thinking habits about nature. A change in thinking habits can produce fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we gain strength and serenity. Changing thinking habits thus requires courage, but it also produces intense and beautiful emotions. Enjoy them!

Subject:
Physical Science
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
08/13/2020
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. V: Motion Inside Matter - Pleasure, Technology, and Stars
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how bodies, images and empty space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best adventures about the motion inside people, inside animals, and inside any other type of matter – from the largest stars to the smallest nuclei.

Motion inside bodies – dead or alive – is described by quantum theory. Quantum theory describes all motion with the quantum of action h, the smallest change observed in nature. Building on this basic idea, the text first shows how to describe life, death and pleasure. Then, the text explains the observations of chemistry, materials science, astrophysics and particle physics. In the structure of physics, these topics correspond to the three ‘quantum’ points in Figure 1. The story of motion inside living and non-living matter, from the coldest gases to the hottest stars, is told here in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Read- ing a book on physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one sur- prise that makes the reader think. Also numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clar- ifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physical Science
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
08/13/2020
African American History and Culture
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CC BY
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African American History and Culture contains 10 modules starting with African Origins - History and Captivity and continuing through Reconstruction. Openly-licensed course materials developed for the Open Educational Resources (OER) Degree Initiative, led by Achieving the Dream https://courses.lumenlearning.com/catalog/achievingthedream.

Subject:
Computer Science
History
Information Technology
U.S. History
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Author:
Florida State College At Jacksonville
Date Added:
08/13/2020
American Government and Politics in the Information Age
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This text is a comprehensive introduction to the vital subject of American government and politics. Governments decide who gets what, when, how (See Harold D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How, [New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936]); they make policies and pass laws that are binding on all a society’s members; they decide about taxation and spending, benefits and costs, even life and death.Governments possess power—the ability to gain compliance and to get people under their jurisdiction to obey them—and they may exercise their power by using the police and military to enforce their decisions. However, power need not involve the exercise of force or compulsion; people often obey because they think it is in their interest to do so, they have no reason to disobey, or they fear punishment. Above all, people obey their government because it has authority; its power is seen by people as rightfully held, as legitimate. People can grant their government legitimacy because they have been socialized to do so; because there are processes, such as elections, that enable them to choose and change their rulers; and because they believe that their governing institutions operate justly.Politics is the process by which leaders are selected and policy decisions are made and executed. It involves people and groups, both inside and outside of government, engaged in deliberation and debate, disagreement and conflict, cooperation and consensus, and power struggles.In covering American government and politics, this text introduces the intricacies of the Constitution, the complexities of federalism, the meanings of civil liberties, and the conflicts over civil rights;explains how people are socialized to politics, acquire and express opinions, and participate in political life; describes interest groups, political parties, and elections—the intermediaries that link people to government and politics; details the branches of government and how they operate; and shows how policies are made and affect people’s lives.

Subject:
Government/Political Science
Government/Political Science and Law
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Minnesota
Provider Set:
University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing
Author:
David L. Paletz
Diana Owen
Timothy E. Cook
Date Added:
06/06/2011
American Literature I
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This course is a survey of American Literature from 1650 through 1820. It covers Early American and Puritan Literature, Enlightenment Literature, and Romantic Literature. It teaches in the context of American History and introduces the student to literary criticism and research.

Subject:
Language, Philosophy, and Culture
Literature
Material Type:
Full Course
Textbook
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Provider Set:
Candela Courseware
Date Added:
08/13/2020
Analytical Chemistry 2.0
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Analytical chemistry is more than a collection of analytical methods and an understanding of equilibrium chemistry; it is an approach to solving chemical problems. Although equilibrium chemistry and analytical methods are important, their coverage should not come at the expense of other equally important topics. The introductory course in analytical chemistry is the ideal place in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum for exploring topics such as experimental design, sampling, calibration strategies, standardization, optimization, statistics, and the validation of experimental results. Analytical methods come and go, but best practices for designing and validating analytical methods are universal. Because chemistry is an experimental science it is essential that all chemistry students understand the importance of making good measurements.

Subject:
Chemistry
Physical Science
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
BCcampus
Provider Set:
BCcampus Open Textbooks
Author:
David Harvey
Date Added:
10/28/2014
Anatomy and Physiology I
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Includes the study of the gross and microscopic structure of the systems of the human body with special emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Integrates anatomy and physiology of cells, tissues, organs, the systems of the human body, and mechanisms responsible for homeostasis.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Life Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Provider Set:
Candela Courseware
Date Added:
08/13/2020
Anatomy and Physiology II
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Includes sections on the Endocrine System, the Cardiovascular System, the Lymphatic and Immune System, the Respiratory System, the Digestive System, Nutrition, the Urinary System, the Reproductive System, and Development and Inheritance.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Life Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Provider Set:
Candela Courseware
Date Added:
08/13/2020
The Anthropocene, Overview
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This presentation offers an overview of the developing concept of The Anthropocene -- a term coined to describe our current geological epoch, in which human impact on the planet will leave a permanent trace.

Subject:
Archaeology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
CUNY Academic Works
Provider Set:
Borough of Manhattan Community College
Author:
Scott W. Schwartz
Date Added:
05/11/2017
Antiracist Writing Assessment Ecologies: Teaching and Assessing Writing for a Socially Just Future
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CC BY-NC-ND
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In Antiracist Writing Assessment Ecologies, Asao B. Inoue theorizes classroom writing assessment as a complex system that is "more than" its interconnected elements. To explain how and why antiracist work in the writing classroom is vital to literacy learning, Inoue incorporates ideas about the white racial habitus that informs dominant discourses in the academy and other contexts. Inoue helps teachers understand the unintended racism that often occurs when teachers do not have explicit antiracist agendas in their assessments. Drawing on his own teaching and classroom inquiry, Inoue offers a heuristic for developing and critiquing writing assessment ecologies that explores seven elements of any writing assessment ecology: power, parts, purposes, people, processes, products, and places.

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
WAC Clearinghouse
Author:
Asao B. Inoue
Date Added:
01/01/2017
Applied Calculus
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Applied Calculus instructs students in the differential and integral calculus of elementary functions with an emphasis on applications to business, social and life science. Different from a traditional calculus course for engineering, science and math majors, this course does not use trigonometry, nor does it focus on mathematical proofs as an instructional method.

Subject:
Calculus
Mathematics
Material Type:
Full Course
Textbook
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Provider Set:
Candela Courseware
Author:
Dale Hoffman
David Lippman
Shana Calaway
Date Added:
08/13/2020
Applied Developmental Systems Science: Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Theories, Meta-Theories, Methods, and Interventions but Didn't Realize You Needed to Ask. An Advanced Textbook
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CC BY-NC
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This textbook provides a toolbox, a guidebook, and an instruction manual for researchers and interventionists who want to conceptualize and study applied problems from a developmental systems perspective, and for those who want to teach their graduate (or advanced undergraduate) students how to do this. It is designed to be useful to practitioners who focus on applied developmental problems, such as improving the important developmental contexts where people live, learn, and work, including the applied professions in education, social work, counseling, health care, community development, and business, all of which at their core are concerned with optimizing the development of their students, clients, patients, workers, citizens, and others whose lives they touch.

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Portland State University
Provider Set:
PDXOpen
Author:
Thomas A. Kindermann; Andrew Mashburn; Robert W. Roeser; Ellen A. Skinner; Cathleen L. Smith; Joel Steele
Date Added:
12/29/2015
Applied Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This lab manual provides students with the theory, practical applications, objectives, and laboratory procedure of ten experiments. The manual also includes educational videos showing how student should run each experiment and a workbook for organizing data collected in the lab and preparing result tables and charts.

Subject:
Engineering
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Texas at Arlington
Provider Set:
Mavs Open Press
Author:
Habib Ahmari
Date Added:
08/13/2020
Applied Statistics, Spring 2009
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CC BY-NC-ND
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0.0 stars

I designed the course for graduate students who use statistics in their research, plan to use statistics, or need to interpret statistical analyses performed by others. The primary audience are graduate students in the environmental sciences, but the course should benefit just about anyone who is in graduate school in the natural sciences. The course is not designed for those who want a simple overview of statistics; we’ll learn by analyzing real data. This course or equivalent is required for UMB Biology and EEOS Ph.D. students. It is a recommended course for several of the intercampus graduate school of marine science program options.

Subject:
Mathematics
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
UMass Boston
Provider Set:
UMass Boston OpenCourseWare
Author:
Eugene Gallagher
Date Added:
08/13/2020
The Arab Spring of Discontent
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CC BY-NC
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0.0 stars

Written as events unfolded, this edited collection of articles offers insightful and diverse perspectives on the Arab uprising, and expands to consider related political unrest outside the predominantly Arab world.

Subject:
Government/Political Science
Government/Political Science and Law
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
E-International Relations
Author:
Al McKay
Date Added:
08/13/2020
Arabic and English Sentence Patterns: A Comparative Guide
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CC BY-NC
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0.0 stars

This text explores verb time, tense, aspect, and mood through comparison of Arabic and English sentence patterns. It includes examples of the Arabic patterns from classical and popular sources so Arabic students can learn by explanation and example how to formulate cohesive and grammatically correct sentence structure.

While this guide is intended mainly for English-speaking students studying Arabic, the charts also provide a quick reference of English sentence patterns for Arabic speakers.

The book is designed as a supplement.

Subject:
Language, Philosophy, and Culture
Languages
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Portland State University
Provider Set:
PDXOpen
Author:
Cliff Breedlove
Date Added:
05/01/2017
Arithmetic | Algebra
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CC BY-NC-ND
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0.0 stars

Arithmetic | Algebra provides a customized open-source textbook for the math developmental students at New York City College of Technology. The book consists of short chapters, addressing essential concepts necessary to successfully proceed to credit-level math courses. Each chapter provides several solved examples and one unsolved “Exit Problem”. Each chapter is also supplemented by its own WeBWork online homework assignment. The book can be used in conjunction with WeBWork for homework (online) or with the Arithmetic | Algebra Homework handbook (traditional). The content in the book, WeBWork and the homework handbook are also aligned to prepare students for the CUNY Elementary Algebra Final Exam (CEAFE).

Subject:
Algebra
Mathematics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
CUNY Academic Works
Provider Set:
New York City College of Technology
Author:
Holly Carley
Lin Zhou
Marianna Bonanome
Samar ElHitti
Thomas Tradler
Date Added:
01/01/2017
Arithmetic | Algebra Homework
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CC BY-NC-ND
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Arithmetic | Algebra Homework book is a static version of the WeBWork online homework assignments that accompany the textbook Arithmetic | Algebra for the developmental math courses MAT 0630 and MAT 0650 at New York City College of Technology, CUNY.

Subject:
Algebra
Mathematics
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
CUNY Academic Works
Provider Set:
New York City College of Technology
Author:
Ariane Masouda
Lin Zhou
Samar ElHitti
Date Added:
01/01/2017
Arithmetic for College Students
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0.0 stars

This course is an arithmetic course intended for college students, covering whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percents, ratios and proportions, geometry, measurement, statistics, and integers using an integrated geometry and statistics approach. The course uses the late integers model—integers are only introduced at the end of the course.

Subject:
Mathematics
Material Type:
Full Course
Textbook
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Provider Set:
Candela Courseware
Author:
David Lippman
Date Added:
08/13/2020