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11 Cognitive Psychology: Module 21
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Module 21: Problem Solving Same place, different day. Perry is sitting at his desk again, staring at a blank document in front of him, while nervously playing with a pen in his right hand. Just a few hours left to hand in his essay, and he has not written a word. He rubs his fingers against his temple and mutters, "I need a plan!" That thing Perry is confronted with is something many of us encounters in his daily life. He has a problem, and he does not really know how to solve it. But what exactly is a problem? Are there strategies to solve problems? These are just a few of the questions we want to answer in this chapter.

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Collin Scarince
Date Added:
06/28/2023
12 Cognitive Psychology: Module 22
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Module 22: Judgment and Reasoning No matter which public topic you discuss or which personal aspect you worry about – you need reasons for your opinion and argumentation. Moreover, the ability of reasoning is responsible for your cognitive features of decision making and choosing among alternatives. Everyone uses these two abilities in everyday life to the utmost. Let us, therefore, consider one more scene of Perry's life: It is again a rainy afternoon and Perry is tired of observing the black crows in his garden and decides to escape from the shabby weather and spend his mid-semester break in Mexico. Perry has never been to Mexico before and is pretty excited. He will leave the next day; thus, he begins packing his bag. The crucial things first: some underwear, some socks, a pair of pajamas and his wash bag with a toothbrush, shampoo, soap, sunscreen, and bug spray. But, Perry cannot find the bug spray until his friend, Terry, tells him that he lost it and will buy him a new bottle. Terry advises Perry to take an umbrella for the way to the corner store as it is raining outside before he turns back to his packing task. But what did he already pack into his bag? Immediately, he remembers and continues, packing his clothing into the bag, considering that each piece fits another one and finally his iPod as he exclusively listens to music with this device. Since he is going on somewhere warm, Perry specifically packs shorts and T-Shirts into his bag. After approximately half an hour, he is finally convinced that he has done everything necessary for having some fine holidays. Using Perry's vacation preparation, we will explain the basic principles of reasoning and decision making.

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Collin Scarince
Date Added:
06/28/2023
12 Cognitive Psychology: Module 23
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Module 23: Decision Making According to the different levels of consequences, each process of making a decision requires appropriate effort and various aspects to be considered. The following excerpt from the story about Perry makes this obvious: “After considering facts like the warm weather in Mexico and shirts and shorts being much more comfortable in this case (information gathering and likelihood estimation) Perry reasons that he needs them for his vacation. In consequence, he finally makes the decision to pack mainly shirts and shorts in his bag (final act of choosing).” Now it seems like there cannot be any decision making without previous reasoning, but that is not true. Of course, there are situations in which someone decides to do something spontaneously, with no time to reason about it. We will not go into detail here, but you might think about questions like "Why do we choose one or another option in that case?"

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Collin Scarince
Date Added:
06/28/2023
Abnormal Language, Fall 2004
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Introduction to the linguistic study of language pathology, concentrating on experimental approaches and theoretical explanations. Discussion of Specific Language Impairment, autism, Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, normal aging, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hemispherectomy and aphasia. Focuses on the comparison of linguistic abilities among these syndromes, while drawing clear comparisons with first and second language acquisition. Topics include the lexicon, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Relates the lost linguistic abilities in these syndromes to properties of the brain.

Subject:
Linguistics
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Hirsch, Christopher
Wexler, Kenneth
Date Added:
01/01/2004
Abnormal Psychology
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Abnormal Psychology is an Open Education Resource written by Alexis Bridley, Ph.D. and Lee W. Daffin Jr., Ph.D. through Washington State University which tackles the difficult topic of mental disorders in 15 modules. After the first three foundational modules, a discussion of mental disorders ensues to include depressive, anxiety, personality, schizophrenic, eating, and obsessive-compulsive to name a few.

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Lee W. Daffin Jr.
Alexis Bridley
Date Added:
11/10/2020
Abnormal Psychology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This course is designed to provide an engaging and personally relevant overview of the discipline of Abnormal Psychology. You will examine the cognitive and behavioral patterns which impair personal effectiveness and adjustment. Students will provide much of the substantive content and teaching presence in this course. Additional content has been curated from "The Noba Project (http://nobaproject.com/)" and "Abnormal Psychology: An e-text! (http://abnormalpsych.wikispaces.com/).

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Textbook
Unit of Study
Provider:
Achieving the Dream
Author:
Bill Pelz
Herkimer Community College
Date Added:
04/25/2021
Abnormal Psychology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This course is designed to provide an engaging and personally relevant overview of the discipline of Abnormal Psychology. You will examine the cognitive and behavioral patterns which impair personal effectiveness and adjustment. Students will provide much of the substantive content and teaching presence in this course. Additional content has been curated from "The Noba Project (http://nobaproject.com/)" and "Abnormal Psychology: An e-text! (http://abnormalpsych.wikispaces.com/).
Openly-licensed course materials developed for the Open Educational Resources (OER) Degree Initiative, led by Achieving the Dream. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/catalog/achievingthedream

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Full Course
Homework/Assignment
Syllabus
Textbook
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Author:
Bill Pelz
Date Added:
08/13/2020
Abnormal Psychology – FSCJ
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This course is designed to provide an engaging and personally relevant overview of the discipline of Abnormal Psychology. You will examine the cognitive and behavioral patterns which impair personal effectiveness and adjustment. Students will provide much of the substantive content and teaching presence in this course. Additional content has been curated from "The Noba Project (http://nobaproject.com/)" and "Abnormal Psychology: An e-text! (http://abnormalpsych.wikispaces.com/).

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Bill Pelz
Date Added:
06/03/2021
Additional Resources for Introductory Psychology
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Additional Resources to be used with OpenStax Psychology 2e, but could be used with any introductory psychology course. The resources consist of mostly videos that could be shown in class or assigned to students as an activity.

Subject:
Psychology
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Author:
Kristi Moore
Date Added:
06/01/2021
Advanced Animal Behavior, Spring 2000
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Reviews selected issues including learning, cognition, perception, foraging and feeding, migration and navigation, defense, and social activities including conflict, collaboration, courtship and reproduction, and communication. The interacting contributions of environment and heredity are examined and the approaches of psychology, ethology, and ecology to this area of study are treated. The relation of human behavior patterns to those of nonhuman animals is explored. Additional readings and a paper are required for graduate credit.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Schneider, Gerald
Date Added:
01/01/2000
Affect: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Feelings, Spring 2013
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This course studies the relations of affect to cognition and behavior, feeling to thinking and acting, and values to beliefs and practices. These connections will be considered at the psychological level of organization and in terms of their neurobiological and sociocultural counterparts.

Subject:
Biology
Life Science
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Chorover, Stephan
Date Added:
01/01/2009
Affective Priming at Short and Extremely Short Exposures, Spring 2003
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This course is an investigation of affective priming and creation of rigorously counterbalanced, fully computerized testing paradigm. Includes background readings, study design, counterbalancing, study execution, data analysis, presentation of poster, and final paper.

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Corkin, Suzanne
Date Added:
01/01/2003
Always Developing
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Welcome to this adult development course. This is the study of how and why people change or remain the same over time. Although this course is often offered in psychology, this is a very interdisciplinary course. Psychologists, nutritionists, sociologists, anthropologists, educators, and health care professionals all contribute to our knowledge of the life span. We will look at how we change physically over time from emerging and early adulthood through aging and death. We will examine cognitive change, or how our ability to think and remember changes over time. We will consider how our concerns and psychological state are influenced by age and finally, how our social relationships change throughout life.

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Sociology
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
eCampusOntario
Author:
Anne Baird
Date Added:
05/05/2021
Animal Behavior, Fall 2013
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CC BY-NC-SA
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Most of the major categories of adaptive behavior can be seen in all animals. This course begins with the evolution of behavior, the driver of nervous system evolution, reviewed using concepts developed in ethology, sociobiology, other comparative studies, and in studies of brain evolution. The roles of various types of plasticity are considered, as well as foraging and feeding, defensive and aggressive behavior, courtship and reproduction, migration and navigation, social activities and communication, with contributions of inherited patterns and cognitive abilities. Both field and laboratory based studies are reviewed; and finally, human behavior is considered within the context of primate studies.

Subject:
Biology
Ecology
Life Science
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Schneider, Gerald
Date Added:
01/01/2013
Answering questions with data: Introductory Statistics for Psychology Students
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CC BY-SA
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This is a free textbook teaching introductory statistics for undergraduates in Psychology. This textbook is part of a larger OER course package for teaching undergraduate statistics in Psychology, including this textbook, a lab manual, and a course website. All of the materials are free and copiable, with source code maintained in Github repositories.

Subject:
Psychology
Social and Behavioral Sciences
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Matthew J.C. Crump
Date Added:
08/13/2020