This book is intended to provide a basic introduction to epidemiologic methods and epidemiologic thinking. After reading this book, you should be able to read an epidemiologic study, understand what the authors did and why, and identify what they found. You will also have the tools to assess the quality of that study—how good is the evidence? What are potential sources of bias, and how might those have affected the results? This book will not teach you enough to be able to design and conduct your own epidemiologic studies—that level of understanding requires several years of specialized training. However, being able to read and understand the scientific literature about human health will allow you to apply that understanding to your own work in a nuanced, sophisticated way.
History and Science of Cultivated Plants narrates how humans transitioned from foragers to farmers and have arrived at present-day industrial agriculture-based civilization. It entails myths, historical accounts, and scientific concepts to describe how human efforts have shaped and produced easier to grow, larger, tastier, and more nutritious fruits, vegetables, and grains from wild plants. Using examples of various economically and socially important crops central to human civilization, the book describes the origin of crop plants, the evolution of agricultural practices, fundamental concepts of natural selection vs. domestication, experimental and methodical plant breeding, and plant biotechnology.
This book is meant to be a second course in fluid mechanics that stresses applications dealing with external potential flows and intermediate viscous flows. Students are expected to have some background in some of the fundamental concepts of the definition of a fluid, hydrostatics, use of control volume conservation principles, initial exposure to the Navier-Stokes equations, and some elements of flow kinematics, such as streamlines and vorticity. It is not meant to be an in-depth study of potential flow or viscous flow, but is meant to expose students to additional analysis techniques for both of these categories of flows. We will see applications to aerodynamics, with analysis methods able to determine forces on arbitrary bodies. We will also examine some of the exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations based on classical fluid mechanics. Finally we will explore the complexities of turbulent flows and how for boundary layer flows one can predict drag forces. This compilation is drafted from notes used in the course Intermediate Fluid Mechanics, offered to seniors and first year graduate students who have a background in mechanical engineering or a closely related area.
Permaculture Design is a method of land planning that can be applied at scales from the home garden to city block to village to farm. It is an ethically based whole-systems design approach that uses concepts, principles, and methods derived from ecosystems, indigenous technologies, and other time-tested practices to create sustainable human settlements and institutions. Although rooted in horticulture and agriculture, Permaculture design is interdisciplinary, touching on a wide range of subjects including regional planning, ecology, animal husbandry, appropriate technology, architecture, social justice, and international development.
This open text book is derived from the content of the Massive Open Online Course “Intro to Permaculture”. The original course also included interactive mapping and design tools that accompanied this content. The course and book provide a general overview of the Permaculture design system. The book can be downloaded as a print version. However, there are many accompanying videos and content pages that are linked to throughout the text, so it is best viewed online where the links can be accessed.