The Evolution of Bloom's Taxonomy

Revised Taxonomy (2001)

In 2001, a group comprising cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists, instructional researchers, and testing and assessment specialists published a revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The new title was called e A Taxonomy for Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. It notably drew attention away from the somewhat static notion of “educational objectives” in Bloom’s original title and pointed to a more dynamic conception of classification.

Revised Taxonomy

The authors of the revised taxonomy underscored this dynamism, using verbs to label their categories and subcategories (rather than the nouns as found in the original taxonomy). These “action words” describe the cognitive processes by which thinkers encounter and work with knowledge:

  • Remember
    • Recognizing
    • Recalling
  • Understand
    • Interpreting
    • Exemplifying
    • Classifying
    • Summarizing
    • Inferring
    • Comparing
    • Explaining
  • Apply
    • Executing
    • Implementing
  • Analyze
    • Differentiating
    • Organizing
    • Attributing
  • Evaluate
    • Checking
    • Critiquing
  • Create
    • Generating
    • Planning
    • Producing

In the revised taxonomy, knowledge is at the basis of these six cognitive processes, but its authors created a separate taxonomy of the types of knowledge used in cognition:

  • Factual Knowledge
    • Knowledge of terminology
    • Knowledge of specific details and elements
  • Conceptual Knowledge
    • Knowledge of classifications and categories
    • Knowledge of principles and generalizations
    • Knowledge of theories, models, and structures
  • Procedural Knowledge
    • Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms
    • Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods
    • Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures
  • Metacognitive Knowledge
    • Strategic Knowledge
    • Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge
    • Self-knowledge

Mary Forehand from the University of Georgia provides a guide to the revised version giving a brief summary of the revised taxonomy and a helpful table of the six cognitive processes and four types of knowledge.