Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior

Free Response

Describe Pavlov’s dog experiments as an example of classical conditioning.


Dogs salivated in response to food. This was the unconditioned stimulus and response. Dogs exposed to food had a bell rung repeatedly at the same time, eventually learning to associate the bell with food. Over time, the dogs would salivate when the bell was rung, even in the absence of food. Thus, the bell became the conditioned stimulus, and the salivation in response to the bell became the conditioned response.