Glossary: Interest Groups and Lobbying in Texas

dark money: In the politics of the United States, dark money refers to political spending by nonprofit organizations—for example, 501(c)(4) (social welfare), 501(c)

(unions), and 501(c)(6) (trade association) groups—that are not required to disclose their donors

free rider problem: the incentive to benefit from others' work without making a contribution, which leads individuals in a collective action situation to refuse to work together

friendly incumbent rule: regarding interest groups, the informal practice of avoiding support for challengers to incumbent legislators – even when those challengers might be more in line with their group’s interests

grassroots lobbying: an approach that asks the general public to contact legislators and government ocials concerning issues at hand, as opposed to conveying the message to the legislators directly.

interest group: an organization established to influence the government's programs and policies

lobbying: an attempt to influence policy by persuading a government policy-making ocial

political action committee (PAC): In the United States, a political action committee (PAC) is a 527 organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaigns for or against candidates, ballot initiatives, or legislation

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